Resources for Teaching and Learning about CST
The US Conference of Catholic Bishops have a series of videos, discussion guides, handouts, and posters on CST (http://www.usccb.org/beliefs-and-teachings/what-we-believe/catholic-social-teaching/ ) as well as a personal examination of conscience exercise (https://www.usccb.org/prayer-and-worship/sacraments-and-sacramentals/penance/examination-conscience-in-light-of-catholic-social-teaching)
Two other sets of learning and teaching resources on CST are provided by Catholic Relief Services (https://www.crs.org/resource-center/CST-101) and Missio (https://missio.org.uk/catholic-social-teaching/)
Prayer and Liturgical Resources for Prison Chaplains
The National Association of Catholic Chaplains (USA) has a resources page with a wide range of resources for chaplains, including some for prayer and spirituality.
CAFOD has a page with prayers, liturgies and reflections on specific topics and for seasons of the liturgical year.
We are Salt and Light offers a collection of resources linking justice with prayer and liturgy.